Staghorn stones are difficult to manage with a risk of significant renal impairment and urosepsis. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is the first-line treatment for staghorn stones. Often, multiple access tracts are needed to render the patient stone-free. PCNL has been combined with SWL, flexible URS (ECIRS), and mini-PCNL to access residual fragments without the need of additional tracts. However, in a country with limited access to technology and a restraint on resources, multitract PCNL still is the preferred option. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of multitract PCNL in such an environment.
We analyzed data on sixty-five patients with staghorn calculus who underwent multitract PCNL for a staghorn calculus. Data included demographics, stone parameters, intraoperative parameters, complications and clinical outcomes. Hb-drop and creatinine changes were assessed pre- and post-OP. Complications were graded according to the modified Clavien-Dindo classification.
In a total of 65 patients [47 males (72%)], 154 percutaneous access tracts were used in 66 renal units. The number of tracts varied between 2 and 4 in a single renal unit. The stone-free rate was 85%. 20% of patients developed grade I, 14% grade II, and 3% grade III b complications. There were no grade IV and V complications.
Multitract PCNL is safe and efficient, with a good stone-free rate and an acceptable complication rate. When auxiliary combination treatments are not available, multitract standard PCNL remains an option.