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Table 2 Comparison of various PCNL training models with IPHOM

From: A new model of inexpensive portable homemade PERC Mentor (IPHOM) and its validation

  Virtual uromentor Other low cost mentors [20] IPHOM
Cost Extremely costly (> Rs 45,00,000.00) RS 1,50,000.00 Rs 250.00
Manufacturing Factory (Imported) Factory Homemade
Size and portability Bulky and heavy Bulky and heavy Lightweight and portable
External electric connection required Yes Yes No
Haptic feeling of skin and calyceal puncture Only skin puncture is felt Only skin puncture is felt Yes [skin(laminated paper) and calyx (transparent tape covering the ends of pipette)]
Guide wire placement Unrealistic way, small guidewire, placed from side slot and not through PCN needle Not provided Guide wire placement through PCN needle
C-arm Virtual C-arm (Software based) No realistic feeling of manual movement C-arm (External). Makes it heavy and bulky C-arm (Internal) Movable in isocentric manner. Makes it light and portable
Dilatation over guidewire No No Yes
Real time checking the position of needle with respect to calyx No No Yes (Flip open mirror to check final position after the attempt)
Availability of variable calyceal anatomy for training Yes No Yes