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Table 1 Comparison of mean number of attempts and time taken for various tasks performed by expert and novice on day 0, 2 and 3

From: A new model of inexpensive portable homemade PERC Mentor (IPHOM) and its validation

  Task given   Expert (n = 4) Novice (n = 14) P value
    Mean Std dev Mean Std dev
No of attempts Identify posterior calyx Day 0 1 0 2.21 0.57 0.000
Day 2 1 0 1.21 0.42 0.339
Day3 1 0 1 0  
Identify needle position with respect to calyx Day 0 1 0 2.64 0.74 0.000
Day 2 1 0 1.28 0.46 0.250
Day3 1 0 1.07 0.26 0.608
Puncture the calyx Day 0 1.25 0.5 3.35 0.49 0
Day 2 1 0 1.64 0.49 0.022
Day3 1 0 1.5 0.51 0.077
Place the guidewire Day 0 1.25 0.5 3 0.87 0.001
Day 2 1 0 1.71 0.46 0.008
Day3 1 0 1.57 0.51 0.044
Perform bulls Eye Day 0 1.5 0.57 2.85 0.36 0
Day 2 1 0 1.64 0.49 0.022
Day3 1.25 0.5 1.35 0.49 0.709
Perform gradual descent Day 0 1.75 0.5 3 0 0
Day 2 1.25 0.5 2 0.55 0.027
Day3 1 0 1.35 0.63 0.286
Time taken(sec) Triangulation technique Day 0 57.5 5 136 35.33 0.001
Day 2 50 4.08 89.64 39.39 0.066
Day 3 45.25 4.27 56.78 19.57 0.268
Tract Dilatation Day 0 117.5 34.03 217.72 66.98 0.007
Day 2 85 5.7 140.71 66.99 0.061
Day 3 67.5 9.57 98.64 31.83 0.076
Duration of Radiation exposure Day 0 87.5 22.17 200 68.15 0.007
Day 2 68.75 2.5 127.14 88.78 0.216
Day 3 53.75 11.08 66.07 20.67 0.275