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Table 1 Morpho-constitutional classification of the stones according to Daudon et al.

From: Morpho-constitutional analysis of urinary stones from patients with urolithiasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Morphological type Subtype Component Clinical interpretation
I Ia Whewellite Dietary hyperoxaluria, insufficient diuresis
Ib Whewellite Stase, insufficient diuresis
Ic Whewellite Primary hyperoxaluria
Id Whewellite Malformative uropathy, stasis and anatomical confinement
Ie Whewellite Hyperoxalurie absorptive
II IIa Weddellite Hypercalciurie
IIb Weddellite ± whewellite Hypercalciuria ± hyperoxaluria ± hypocitraturia
IIc Weddellite Hypercalciuria, stasis and anatomical confinement
III IIIa Uric acid acid urinary pH and stasis
IIIb Uric acid Metabolic syndrome, diabetes
IIIc Urates Hyperuricosuria and alkaline urine, urinary tract infection
IIId Ammonium urate Hyperuricosuria and diarrhea
IV IVa1 Carbapatitis Hypercalciuria, urinary tract infection
IVa2 Carbapatitis Distal tubular acidosis
IVb Carbapatitis Infection, hypercalciuria
IVc Struvite Urease germ infection
IVd Brushitis Hypercalciuria, primary hyperparathyroidism, hyperphosphaturia, phosphated diabetes
V Va Cystine Cystinuria
Vb Cystine Cystinuria + alkalization treatment
VI VIa Proteins Chronic pyelonephritis
VIb Proteins Drug lithiasis and tubular protein secretion or proteinuria
VIc Proteins Dialysis and excessive calcium + vitamin D supplementation