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Table 2 Clinical presentation and fistula characteristics of participants

From: Outcome of urethral reconstruction among vesico-vaginal fistula patients: a cross-sectional study

Variables Frequency Percent (%)
Presenting complaints
 Leakage of urine 20 87.0
 Leakage of urine and faeces 3 13.0
Causes of fistula
 Obstructed labour 18 78.3
 Operative vaginal delivery 2 8.7
 Caesarean section 1 4.3
 Gynaecologic surgery 1 4.3
 Trauma 1 4.3
Site of other fistulaa
 Juxtaurethral 2 8.7
 Mid-vaginal 6 26.1
 Juxtacervical 2 8.7
 Uterovesical 1 4.3
 Combined 3 13.0
 Large circumferential 8 34.8
 Vault 1 4.3
Previous repair
 Yes (1–4 repairs) 13 56.5
 No 10 43.5
Degree of vaginal mucosa fibrosis
 Mild 4 17.4
 Moderate 3 13.0
 Severe 16 69.6
Complexity of repair
 Simple 2 8.7
 Complex 12 52.2
 Irreparable 8 34.8
 Indeterminate 1 4.3
Outcome of repair
 Successful 19 82.6
 Failed 4 17.4
Incontinence post removal of catheter following successful repair (n = 19)
 Yes (7—stress incontinence, overflow—1) 8 42.1
 No 11 57.9
  1. aLocation of the fistula in addition to urethral loss