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Table 5 Details of severe complications

From: Laparoscopic versus open nephrectomy in resource-constrained developing world hospitals: a retrospective analysis

  Open Laparoscopic Laparoscopic converted to open
Grade 3 11
IVC injury repaired intraoperatively—3
Repeat surgery
 Wound infection—3
 Pneumothorax requiring intercostal drainage—2
Relaparotomy for
 Delayed bleed—1
 Pancreatic injury—1
 Prolonged ileus—1
Wound infection: flank abscess requiring percutaneous drainage
IVC injury repaired intraoperatively
Grade 4 1
IVC Injury/MOD/TF ICU/demised
Urinoma requiring complete nephrectomy, Bowel perf X 3 repaired, ECF development, intra-abd sepsis
IVC Injury—Repaired intraoperatively, AKI secondary to hypotension—Resolved (Cr 1090 ≥ 233), transfusion
Grade 5 5
Hypovolemia with Perioperative Myocardial infarction, Renal failure, (Multiorgan Failure). Patient demised in ICU
Iatrogenic Splenic injury which was packed, Sepsis, Cardiac arrest with suspected Myocardial Infarction, deemed not a candidate for ICU. Patient demised
Patient with end-stage renal failure and pneumonia, not a candidate for the chronic renal programme, sent to renal for ESRD and uncontrolled hypertension. Patient demised
Suspected perioperative Myocardial infarction exacerbated by hypovolemia, patient demised
Patient post-chemotherapy, with anaemia requiring transfusion. The patient subsequently demised of suspected myocardial infarction (Late)
Prolonged bleeding postop requiring exploratory laparotomy. Patient demised after massive transfusion