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Table 2 Knowledge about signs and risk factors of prostate cancer

From: Prostate cancer awareness and attitude toward early detection among male soldiers in Ghana: a cross-sectional study

ItemnMeanStd. D1(%)2(%)3(%)4(%)5(%)
Excessive alcohol intake can cause PC1373.101.19014.611.732.830.78.0
Excessive smoking cannot cause PC1353.411.18110.47.431.132.618.5
Eating too much fatty foods can cause PC1353.171.1109.612.641.523.012.2
Lack of exercise can cause prostate cancer1372.981.20316.116.828.530.78.0
Pain in the penis is a sign of PC1373.541.21910.97.319.740.921.1
Persistent headache is a sign of PC1373.211.08114.621.240.917.56.8
Blood in the urine/semen is not a sign1373.231.18213.18.832.637.210.2
Difficulty/frequent urination is sign of PC1373.851.1248.80.716.844.529.2
Pain in the scrotum is not a sign of PC1373.36.9542.216.833.637.210.2
Pain in the lower back or hip are signs1373.181.0168.012.440.132.27.3
Composite score: less knowledgeable = 5.8%, neutral = 70.2%, knowledgeable = 24.0%
  1. 1 = strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3 = neither, 4 = agree, 5 = strongly agree