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Table 1 The demographics data, clinical characteristics, and preoperative radiologic findings

From: Safety and efficacy of Chinese minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy in the management of renal stones ≤ 2 cm: a single-center experience

Variables 
Age (years)
 Range18–68 years
 Mean ± SD41.10 ± 13.99 years
Gender [n (%)]
 Male43 (64)
 Females24 (36)
Laterality [n (%)]
 Right kidney32 (48)
 Left kidney35 (52)
Stone size (burden) (mm2) 
 Range78.5–439.6 mm2
 Mean ± SD172.48 ± 69.54 mm2
Stone radio-opacity [n (%)]
 Radio-opaque56 (83.6)
 Radio-lucent11 (16.4)
Stone density on NCCT, HU
 Range460–1650 HU
 Mean ± SD1022 ± 315 HU
History of urolithiasis [n (%)]
 Denovo stone31 (46.3)
 Recurrent stone36 (53.7)
Indication of MIPNL [n (%)] 
 SWL failure44 (66)
 Stone in a closed calyx7 (10)
 Patients’ preference16 (24)
State of P/C system [n (%)] 
 Normal32 (47.8)
 Dilated35 (52.2)
  Mild22 (32.8)
  Moderate9 (13.4)
  Severe4 (6.0)
  1. HU Hounsfield unit, MIPNL mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy, NCCT non-contrast computed tomography, SWL shockwave lithotripsy, SD standard deviation, n number